Yoga and Mental Health
Immediate effect of mind sound resonance technique on state anxiety and cognitive functions in patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorder: A self-controlled pilot study
Objectives: To compare the immediate effect of mind sound resonance technique (MSRT) with supine rest (SR) on state anxiety and psychomotor performance in 15 (eight male and seven female) right-handed generalized anxiety disorder patients (GAD) with an age range of 34.8 ± 12.8 years.
Materials and Methods: Self as control design was followed. Diagnosis of GAD was made by a psychiatrist using sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Participants practiced MSRT or SR (as control intervention) for 30 min at the same time for two consecutive days. The sequence of intervention was assigned randomly to the participants. State anxiety was assessed using state trait anxiety inventory (STAI; Form X1). Digit letter substitution task (DLST) was used to assess psychomotor performance, which involves visual scanning, mental flexibility, sustained attention, psychomotor speed and speed of information processing. Intervention was given in a quiet dark room on an empty stomach. Subjects received a training of MSRT and SR for 1 week before the data were taken. A pre-recorded audiotape was used to administer the technique of MSRT. Difference in scores after baseline and intervention was used to check normality, and was found to be normally distributed by the Kolmogrov–Smirnov test. The changes in STAI, DLST and difference in scores before and after two interventions (MSRT and SR) were compared using the paired samples t test
Results: As compared with baseline, STAI scores reduced and DLST scores increased significantly (STAI; P < 0.01; DLST; P < 0.01) after MSRT. After SR, there was a significant reduction in STAI scores from baseline (STAI; P < 0.05), but there was no significant change in the DLST scores (P = 0.26). Comparison of the difference in scores for DLST and STAI before and after the two interventions (MSRT and SR) showed a significantly higher score for DLST (P < 0.05) and a significantly lower score for STAI (P < 0.01) for MSRT as compared with SR.
Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that MSRT may have a potential role in reducing state anxiety and enhancing psychomotor performance in patients suffering from GAD immediately after the practice. These findings need confirmation from studies with a larger sample size and randomized controlled design, which are implicated in the future.
Keywords: Anxiety disorder; attention; mindfulness; mind sound resonance technique; psychomotor performance; state anxiety.
Introduction: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder characterized by persistent worrying, anxiety symptoms, tension and higher sympathetic tone. It is the most frequent anxiety disorder in primary care, being present in 22% of primary care
patients who complain of anxiety problems. GAD affects women more frequently than men, and the prevalence rates are high in midlife (prevalence in females over age 35 years: 10%) and older subjects. GAD is associated with a significant economic burden owing to decreased work
productivity and increased use of health care services. Patients with GAD demonstrate a considerable degree of